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rudbeckia fulgida vs hirta

Once established plant outdoors after the last frost. Kardošová, A., and E. Machová. Experimentation determining the value of the antioxidant properties of the polysaccharides in the root has examined the their ability to inhibit peroxidation of soyabean lecithin liposomes by OH radicals (Kardošová and Machová, 2006). Rudbeckia prefer evenly moist, well-drained soils, but they are drought and heat tolerant once established. Kingsbury, J.M. Rudbeckia fulgida var. The ubiquitous, perennial Rudbeckia fulgida and annual/biennial Rudbeckia hirta are the only species that most people know. Rudbeckia hirta 'Indian Summer' is a sturdy selection with large, yellow flowers that develop 10 to 14 weeks after seeds are sown. Perry, Leonard P.   Potentially Harmful Perennials. Hardiness: 5 - 9 Sun: Full Sun . Dried plant leaves were usually consumed in the form of a tea. Rudbeckia spp. Rudbeckia hirta (common black-eyed Susan) and R. fulgida (orange coneflower) are the species most readily available to gardeners and include many of the newest cultivars. 3M | can also be subject to some viruses and phytoplasma diseases which will cause deformed flowers or leaves. Choi and K.R. R. laciniata is a perennial with bright golden-yellow flowers that bend backward and cone-shaped green centers that become brownish as they mature. ‘Goldsturm’ grows to 23–29 inches in height and spreads 18–23 inches. R. laciniata is a perennial with bright golden-yellow flowers that bend backward and cone-shaped … Pap. Lee. Apply this product during the summer can help reduce the number of Japanese Beetle grubs. Proper spacing between plants will increase air circulation between the plants to keep leaves dry and help prevent the spread of diseases. Rudbeckia triloba is a species native all over the eastern North America. Rudbeckia hirta, commonly known as Coneflower or Black-eyed Susan, are a tough and sturdy perennial that blooms for long periods. Rudbeckia species have an average growth rate and prefer full sun (greater than 6 hours of direct sunlight) but will tolerate partial shade. R. hirta has unlobed leaves. Be sure to read and follow all label directions before use. floridiana and var. Best bloom occurs in full sun, although plants will tolerate some light shade. Seeds sown in the spring will need to be stratified (subjected to a cold treatment to mimic winter conditions) for 3 months at 40°F. umbrosa orange coneflower Legal Status. ‘Toto Gold’ grows to 12–16 inches in height and spreads 10–12 inches. Rudbeckia subtomentosa is a long lived perennial species with lobed basal leaves. Rudbeckia have erect stems with alternate, deeply lobed pubescent (hairy) leaves. Arch Pharm Res. sullivantii 'Goldsturm' is a popular standard. Rudbeckia fulgida, hirta, and laciniata are three of many closely related species. Division: Rudbeckia can be divided every 3–4 years in early spring or fall to prevent overcrowding. This species typically flowers in mid- to late summer through mid-fall. Click on a place name to get a complete protected plant list for that location. Rudbeckia is a tough summer-flowering perennial wildflower that likes sun, heat, and humidity. Black-eyed Susans will average 2–3 feet in height and about 1–2 feet in clump width. Most Bt products are sold under the trade name Thuricide. R. hirta is an annual to short-lived perennial with characteristics very similar to R. fulgida, but its flowers have a dark brown or brown-maroon center and ‘hairy’ stems. If planted in the fall, the plants will have adequate time to acclimate to their new environment. hirta and all the showy cultivars are biennial, growing only leaves and stems the first season and blooming the following year. 'Irish Eyes' Butterflies, birds, and bees will not miss these glowing yellow beacons on the 30-inch … fulgida Plants prefer consistent moisture throughout the growing season. It may likely endure few winters, but will often self-seed prolifically. : Timber Press. across (7 cm), from late summer through mid fall. Germination of Rudbeckia should take from one to three weeks. Rudbeckia hirta ‘Prairie Sun’ Rudbeckia occidentalis ‘Black Beauty’ Rudbeckia hirta ‘Toto Lemon’ Rudbeckia Gold Fountain Rudbeckia hirta ‘Chim Chiminee’ Rudbeckia hirta Rustic Colors Rudbeckia fulgida var. A new highly oxygenated pseudoguaianolide with 5-LOX inhibitory activity from Rudbeckia hirta L. flowers. Their native habitat is open woods, meadows, and pastures (Wildflower Database). University of Vermont Extension System Department of Plant and Soil Science, 1997. Rudbeckia fulgida is a tried and true species that has large lance-shaped basal leaves and grows to 2–3 feet in height and 2 feet in width. The flowers are a dark mix of bronze orange and red. COVID-19 Extension Updates and Resources ... More Information », Factsheet | HGIC 1192 | Published: Mar 1, 2017 | Print. Sullivant's Coneflower Rudbeckia fulgida sullivantii Aster family (Asteraceae) Description: This perennial wildflower is about 1½-2½' tall, branching occasionally. Perennials. Some nurseries sell seed-grown plants, howe… The showy flowers will attract bees, butterflies, and the seeds are loved by birds. Rudbeckia hirta is a short-lived perennial that should be treated as an annual. Coneflower, Rudbeckia fulgida goldsturm, and similar plants are easy to look after. Most species are perennial, but Rudbeckia. Caring for Coneflower and other Rudbeckia in the garden. In urban and suburban gardens, the most common black-eyed Susan is Rudbeckia fulgida. “Water-Extractable Polysaccharide Complex of Rudbeckia fulgida Var. Black-eyed Susans are moderate feeders. Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service offers its programs to people of all ages, regardless of race, color, gender, religion, national origin, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, gender identity, marital or family status and is an equal opportunity employer. The showy flowers are approximately 2–3 inches in diameter with ray-like petals and a flat, dark eye center. The flower heads are 2-3 inches in diameter. With its classic yellow showy flowers with black centers, it is perfect miniature. Natural predators can be attracted, but the best treatment is any product containing Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki). This is the Maryland state flower. The variety makes an excellent addition to any garden. Alabama Power Foundation | Rudbeckia laciniata is affectionately known as the “Out House Plant”. Hardiness: 3 - 9 Sun: Full Sun, Partial Sun . However, colonies of Black-eyed Susans can become quite large. It blooms in mid-summer through mid-fall with large, 3 inch yellow flowers and black centers. 51.1 (1997): 52-59. The flowers are bright yellow with greenish yellow centers. Excess nitrogen and phosphorus in water runoff can also lead to potential cyanobacteria algal blooms in ponds and lakes. Add to Any Collection My Collection. It is long-blooming and virtually pest-free. Join our mailing list to receive the latest updates from HGIC. ... Rudbeckia hirta 'Chocolate Orange' (Black-Eyed Susan) Add to Collection. Borne on sturdy stems, each charming flower counts up to 12-20 rays that surround a prominent chocolate central cone. The leaves grow more upright, which gives the plant a different look than other Rudbeckia species. The stems grow 3-12 feet tall with pinnate leaves (Wildflower Database). For more information on planting, see fact sheet HGIC 1153, Growing Perennials. This species is more dependably … The flower heads are 3-4 inches in diameter. sullivantii Goldsturm Deep yellow petals with an orange tint surrounding a purple-brown centre. Barbara H. Smith, ©2016 HGIC, Clemson Extension. Rudbeckia is one of those groups of plants that really can make a statement in the home garden and landscape. It is short-lived but reseeds itself. Michael, B.R., S.R. Be sure to read and follow all label directions before use. There are many areas in the lower part of the state where phosphorus levels are naturally high, so a soil test will determine if adding a fertilizer with phosphorus is necessary or not. Researched and written by BSC Student Kelsey Moore (2013), Title/abstract search for Rudbeckia fulgida at PubMed, Title/abstract search for Rudbeckia hirta at PubMed, Title/abstract search for Rudbeckia laciniata at PubMed, Title/abstract search for Rudbeckia spp. 2013, 27, 2281-5. Structural Characterization of an Acidic Heteropolysaccharide from Rudbeckia Fulgida, Var. sullivantii 'Goldsturm' Sku #7101. There have been records of different Native American tribes using the plant to aid in the treatment of dropsy, worms, snakebites, and earaches (Moerman, 1998). Use pesticides only according to the directions on the label. Low basal leaves are produced initially that are oval in shape and dentate along their margins; their bases are rounded to slightly cordate. Features daisy-like flowers (to 2.5" across) with yellow rays and brownish-purple center disks. It is also believed that the Potawatomi Indians made tea from the roots, which had immunostimulating properties that relieve symptoms of the common cold (Moerman, 1998). Rudbeckia maxima is species native to the Southern United States. 2014 Jul;37(7):834-8. These mites naturally feed on two-spotted spider mites and will provide adequate management if the spider mite populations are relatively low. Early fall is the best time to plant perennial Rudbeckia, but they can also be planted in mid-April. Rudbeckia fulgida var. Freshwater Land Trust | sullivantii 'Goldsturm' has been selected by the Perennial Plant Association as the 1999 Perennial Plant of the Year. The leaves are coarse and sometimes feel like sandpaper. Rudbeckia are perennial flowering plants that are hardy in Zones 4–9. Rudbeckia hirta is also the most often Rudbeckia called black eyed susan. Poisonous Plants of the United States and Canada. Rudbeckia can be propagated by seed, but the best way to propagate them is by division. Aphids: There are several naturally occurring predators that aid in the control of aphids, among which are green lacewing larvae and parasitic wasps. Easily grown in average, moist, well-drained soils in full sun. Black-eyed Susans will average 2–3 feet in height and about 1–2 feet in clump … If this document didn’t answer your questions, please contact HGIC at or 1-888-656-9988. Rudbeckia fulgida var. Portland, Or. Additional insects that Rudbeckia will attract are hover flies and minute pirate bugs. Capek, P., and A. Kardošová. Deadheading old flowers will encourage re-blooming and keep the plants looking their best. Adding drama in the late season garden, award-winning Rudbeckia fulgida var. The bright yellow flowers have a dark black center and are a great addition to compliment native plantings. R. fulgida … In the absence of a soil test, they can be maintained with an application of a 12-6-6 slow release fertilizer at a rate of 1 pound per 100 square feet in early to mid-April, when new leaves begin to emerge, and again in September at a ½ pound per 100 square feet. Brown eyed Susan (Rudbeckia maxima) is species native to the Southern United States. They can also adapt well to average soils.Rudbeckia have a clumping, but upright habit, and coarse texture. Ahmed. Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Lee, S.Y., Y.J. Moerman, Daniel E. (1998) Native American Ethnobotany. It grows to 2 feet tall. This native form of the Black-eyed Susan is longer flowering than the more familiar garden selection ‘Goldsturm', continuing well into October in many regions. Common names are from state and federal lists. The flowers are showier than other Rudbeckia species and have been widely hybridized. Their drought resistance and low maintenance make them an excellent addition to a water-wise landscape, raingarden, or xeriscape. However, there are number of other species worth seeking out because of their unique attributes includ… The classic black-eyed Susan, and state flower of Maryland, is Rudbeckia hirta. Black-eyed Susans typically bloom in late spring through early fall. R. triloba has smaller flowers, fewer rays and lobes on both stem and basal leaves. ‘Little Goldstar’ grows to 14–16 inches in height and spreads 14–16 inches; it is ideal for container gardening. All recommendations are for South Carolina conditions and may not apply to other areas. The Perennial Plant Association's 1999 Perennial Plant of the Year™ Rudbeckia fulgida var. Bright, daisy-like, golden yellow flowers with black centers cover the dark green foliage. All recommendations for pesticide use are for South Carolina only and were legal at the time of publication, but the status of registration and use patterns are subject to change by action of state and federal regulatory agencies. Prod. Rudbeckia fulgida: pappus present, represented by a minute crown, stolons present, and chaff of receptacle 2.5-4 mm long (vs. R. hirta, with pappus absent, stolons … Stephens Foundation, © 2011–2020 TREK BIRMINGHAM | 900 ARKADELPHIA RD BIRMINGHAM, AL 35204, Site by Scout Branding Company |Powered By WordPress, Black-eyed susan (R. fulgida) smooth stems, Hairy stem of brown-eyed Susan (R. hirta). ‘Goldrush’ grows to 18–23 inches in height and spreads 18–23 inches. “Antioxidant Activity of Medicinal Plant Polysaccharides.” Fitoterapia 77 (2006): 367-73. R. fulgida is a perennial. It is also relatively free of disease and insect problems. Most are considered perennial; however, there are some annual species, such as R. hirta. They can also adapt well to average soils. Colonies of this species can be quite large, covering massive areas. 1975. R. fulgida (left) has long, teardrop-shaped toothed leaves, dark green in color, sometimes tinged purple; the leaves of R. hirta (right) are paler in color, more narrow, less toothy, and leaves and stems are hairy. We hope to change that by offering lesser-known Rudbeckia species such as the 7' tall, powder-blue-leaved, Rudbeckia maxima. Depending on the population, this variety can be an annual, a biennial (a plant with a two-year lifecycle) or short-lived perennial. fulgida can be differentiated from similar species because it has narrower glossy leaves, smaller flowerheads than some and uniformly sized upper leaves. They should be staked, watered frequently, and dead flower heads removed. Rudbeckia’s upright growth and coarse texture makes it ideal for mass plantings in naturalized areas or in the background of perennial beds. However, if spider mite populations are high, use a spray of horticultural summer oil or insecticidal soap. Like many plants, they have several common names, among which are: Black-eyed Susan, Gloriosa Daisy, and Yellow Ox Eye. Unlike many other black-eyed Susans, this one does not require staking. However, since these can be pests themselves by digging up the lawn, it is best to prevent them with any product containing Bacillus papillae, such as Milky Spore. Barbara H. Smith, ©2016 HGIC, Clemson Extension. Copyright © 2020 Clemson UniversityClemson Cooperative Extension | 103 Barre Hall Clemson, SC 29634864-986-4310 | Contact, College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences, Centipedegrass Yearly Maintenance Program. The plant is huge, growing to 39–47 inches in height and spreading 23–29 inches. Once Rudbeckia is established in the landscape, dead foliage and stems can be removed in the fall, winter, or early spring. Season: Summer (Mid,Late) Two-spotted spider mites: There are many naturally-occurring biological control measures, such as predatory mites (Amblysieus swirskii, Amblysieus californicus, Amblysieus cucmeris, and Phytoseiulus persimilis). Some of these are Rudbeckia hirta var. Excellent cut flower. Recent research on the Black-eyed Susan has been primarily concerned with the polysaccharides and aqueous ethanol extracts of the root of the plant. Rudbeckia is distributed over most of the United States and parts of Canada. A hallmark of prairies and meadows, Black Eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta) is a biennial that blooms and completes its life cycle in its second year with an extravagant floral display. Seeds can be sown indoors up to 2 months before frost; however, it may take 2 years or more to develop a sizeable plant. The flower has a mix of brown, red, and yellow, and makes excellent cut flowers or specimen plantings. Thanks to the thinner and hairier leaves, this hybrid Rudbeckia shows no signs of the fungus even in wet, humid conditions. at PubMed, University of Texas Austin, Wildflower Center, Trek Birmingham is a Birmingham-Southern College project made possible by a grant from Blue Cross & Blue Shield, BCBS | While it may be difficult to tell the rudbeckia species apart by their flowers, the form of the leaves is different. If any of these pathogens are identified, it is best to remove and destroy the affect plant material, as there is no cure. Both of these plants are often referred to as Black-eyed Susan, hence the confusion of common plant names. Plants slowly spread in the garden by rhizomes. Black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta) is a short-lived perennial that is often planted as an annual. Plants are clump forming and produce colonies via rhizomes (underground stems). Plants do not come true from seed (must be vegetatively propagated). Barbara H. Smith, ©2016 HGIC, Clemson Extension. Rudbeckia hirta 'Cherokee Sunset' has double and semi-double flowers in shades of yellow, orange, red, bronze, and mahogany. Goldstrum rudbeckia (Rudbeckia fuldiga ‘Goldstrum’) is perennial in zones 4 – 9. Rudbeckia is a genus made up of 23 species, commonly known as Black-eyed Susans, Brown-eyed Susans or Gloriosa Daisy (annual or bienniel). Res. Rudbeckia fulgida is a Missouri native which occurs in both dry and moist soils in open woods, glades and thickets. Carl Linnaeus named the genus Rudbeckia is in honor of 17th century Swedish botanists Olof Rudbeck the elder and his son Olof Rudbeck the younger. Rudbeckia prefer evenly moist, well-drained soils, but they are drought and heat tolerant once established. Hamel, Paul B., and Mary Ulmer Chiltoskey. Rudbeckia may be annuals, biennials or perennials, all of which are native to the meadowlands and woodlands of North … 55.5 (2001): 311-18. Shiny, deep green foliage. The large yellow flowers have a whimsical look and make excellent cut flowers or even a good choice for a children’s garden or fairy garden. You will see some insects on these plants, but not in the abundance as with some other plants. Cover the seeds lightly with ¼ to ½ inch of soil and keep moist. These plants produce an abundance of bright yellow and orange flowers, each with a dark, button-shaped cone in the center. Deadhead spent flowers to encourage additional bloom. ‘Denver Daisy’ grows to 18 – 20 inches in height and spreads 12 – 18 inches. They make excellent cut flowers. A new flavonol glycoside from the aerial part of Rudbeckia laciniata. Shin, S.U. The stems are scattered and 1-3 feet tall with oblong leaves covered with bristly hairs. Kardošová, A., D. KOŠŤÁLOVÁ,, P. Capek, V. PÄTOPRSTÝ,, and S. FRAŇ0VÁ. Andrew "Drew" Jeffers, Spartanburg Cooperative Extension, Horticulture and Natural Resource Agent, Clemson University. It grows across the United States and into Canada. Caterpillars: Caterpillars will cause damage, but it is usually minor. (1964). Four varieties of Rudbeckia fulgida, compared. Sullivantii (Boynton Et Beadle). Acclaimed internationally as one of the most popular perennials for the past fifty years, its bright golden-yellow flowers shine in gardens worldwide. A favorite flower with almost every Southern gardener, it is known by several common names: black-eyed Susan, brown-eyed Susan, and Gloriosa. The species is a short-lived perennial that will self-seed and works well in naturalized areas. For more specific information on how to divide Rudbeckia, see fact sheet HGIC 1150, Dividing Perennials. Pap. Species that are commonly available are R. hirta, R. fulgida, R. grandiflora, and R. triloba. Rudbeckia were used by early North American Settlers as a diuretic and as a stimulant. There are about 25 species of Rudbeckia, all native to North America. (Wildflower Database; USDA). Cherokee Plants and Their Uses: A 400 Year History. Annual Rudbeckia are planted in spring after the last chance of frost. Rudbeckia fulgida var. Rudbeckia hirta Rustic Dwarfs Shorter variety with a mix of flowers from yellow to rich mahogany. Seed: If propagating from seed, sow seeds in early to mid-fall, or early to mid-spring. The flowers are a bright and showy yellow and make perfect cut flowers and are attractants for pollinators and beneficial insects. Follow all directions, precautions and restrictions that are listed. sullivantii (Boynton Et Beadle) Possesses Antitussive Activity.” Chem. In most cases supplemental calcium via bone meal will be necessary to provide full nutrition. This information is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement of brand names or registered trademarks by the Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service is implied, nor is any discrimination intended by the exclusion of products or manufacturers not named. R. hirta is an annual to short-lived perennial with characteristics very similar to R. fulgida, but its flowers have a dark brown or brown-maroon center and ‘hairy’ stems. Cherokee tribes used coneflowers to relieve the discomfort of many gynecological and venereal issues (Hamel and Chiltoskey, 1975). Many species are actually biennials or short-lived perennials but because they self-sow readily, they often return each spring from seed dispersed the previous fall. fulgida black-eyed Susan or orange coneflower. ‘City Garden’ is a dwarf version that only grows to 10–12 inches high and spreads 16–18 inches; it is ideal for container gardening. ‘Rustic Colors’ grows to 18–23 inches in height and spreads 12–18 inches. Threatened and Endangered Information: This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Six weeks after 'Goldsturm' is brown, this plant is at its peak! Add to Any Collection My Collection. Rudbeckia grandiflora is a rhizomatous perennial species native to the Eastern United States. R. hirta 'Chocolate Orange' R. hirta R. hirta, also called gloriosa daisy or yellow ox-eye daisy, is the floral emblem of the state of Maryland.Most types have an upright habit and reach between 3 to 4 feet high. Rudbeckia fulgida var. Preferred growing conditions. If an insecticide is necessary for control, use a spray of horticultural summer oil or insecticidal soap. angustifolia, as well as var. pulcherrima. Black-eyed Susan, Orange coneflower (fulgida), Brown-eyed Susan (hirta), cut-leaf coneflower (lacinata). Established plants have some tolerance for drought. Rudbeckia also make excellent cut flowers for arrangements due to their bright color and strong stems. ‘Prairie Sun’ grows to 27– 31 inches in height and spreads 12–16 inches. This variety is a biennial or short-lived perennial hardy in zones 3 through 7. Rudbeckia have a clumping, but upright habit, and coarse texture. fulgida. There are many black eyed susan varieties and cultivars of this particular species. Honored as the 1999 Perennial Plant of the Year. You are right – neither Rudbeckia hirta nor the similar Rudbeckia fulgida attract a ton of pollinators. Chem. Studies focused on the ethanol extracts of the root have indicated immune-stimulating properties of through the observation of increased activity of phagocytes and the metabolic activity of macrophages, as well as through the increased bacterial activity of microphages on E. Coli cells (Kardošová et al., 1997). Japanese Beetles: Most natural enemies of Japanese Beetles will be mammals that eat the larvae or grubs, such as opossums, raccoons, and skunks. Smaller and finer than Rudbeckia 'Goldsturm' with 10 weeks of flowers from July into October. There have been some reports of the Black-eyed Susan causing skin irritation in humans, and the plant is known to be poisonous to cattle and horses (Perry, 1997). Gedara, M.M. A dome-like habit of golden yellow flowers with black centers are produced heavily from July to September here in Michigan, with some color until frost. deamii is a clump-forming, erect perennial boasting masses of rich golden yellow flowers, 3 in. Autumn Black-eyed Susan: USDA Zone: 3-9: Plant number: 1.455.030. All of these pathogens are typically encouraged by excess moisture on the leaves (usually after frequent rain or overhead irrigation), so cultural practices, such as proper spacing to encourage air movement, the removal of dead plant material, and utilizing drip irrigation will reduce the risk for infection. Germination should take about 2 weeks. Test the soil in the landscape bed through Clemson Cooperative Extension for the amount of lime required and the best fertilizer to apply. Transplants will bloom the year they are planted, and will easily self-sow onto open … ‘Goldilocks’ grows to 20–23 inches in height and spreads 12–18 inches. The flower is unique, having yellow petals with a dark brown center and a mahogany eye. These insects are very good natural predators of garden pests, such as thrips, aphids, and whiteflies. The flowers are a mix of orange and bronze with yellow edges. Rudbeckia species have an average growth rate and prefer full sun (greater than 6 hours of direct sunlight) but will tolerate partial shade. R. hirta and R. triloba are biennials or short lived perennials. Tolerates heat, humidity, and clay soil. Flowers have brown centers and radiating yellow-orange petals that curve slightly downward with teeth at their apical ends. ‘Autumn Colors’ grows to 20–23 inches in height and spreads 12–18 inches. They are members of the Asteraceae family and are native to both damp woodlands and dry prairies in North America. Experimentation continues to examine the structural characterization of the active ingredients of the root said to offer antitussive and anti-inflammatory abilities (Capek and Kardošová, 2001). An upright, rhizomatous, clump-forming, free-blooming coneflower which typically grows to 3' tall, often forming colonies in the wild. Nat. Various portions of the plant have been used (Moerman, 1998). The flowers have large dark brown centers with yellow edges. Rudbeckia fulgida 'Viette's Little Suzy' (Black-Eyed Susan) Add to Collection. This variety is ideal for small gardens, containers, and as cut flowers. Sylva, NC: Herald Pub., Comp. Good air circulation is appreciated. For more information on insecticidal soap treatments see fact sheet HGIC 2771, Insecticidal Soaps for Garden Pest Control. This showy variety is ideal for use as cut flowers. Rudbeckia fulgida var. Rudbeckia fulgida var. Diseases: Rudbeckia are infrequently subject to several disease problems, such as powdery mildew, bacterial leaf spots, fungal leaf spots, stem rots, downy mildew, and fungal rusts. black-eyed Susan Interesting Notes. Rudbeckia (Black-Eyed Susan) - a genus of North American wildflowers known for their showy yellow coneflowers. This variety is simply stunning. ‘Cherokee Sunset’ grows to 27–29 inches in height and spreads 12–16 inches. The yellow flowers are large and showy. ‘Toto Lemon’ grows to 12–16 inches tall and spreads 10–12 inches. Rudbeckia seed may be planted directly into the garden. ‘Sonora’ grows to 12–16 inches in height and spreads 12–18 inches. A colorful, fuss-free border plant and excellent choice for cut flowers. Rudbeckia hirta Toto Dwarf, compact plants with golden-yellow blooms. Amer, L. Stevenson and A.F.

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