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Octopus-like structures, as well as budding, dimpled- and dumbbell-shaped forms were also observed. ], 60(2):123-124. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/, Neda Naderali, Ganesan Vadamalai, Naghmeh Nejat, Ling KL, 2015. (1991), AY group phytoplasma infections occurred in 80% of lettuce plants and 28% of carrots. Plumbaginaceae).) Journal of Plant Protection Research. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 35(3):144-151; 25 ref, Gundersen DE, Lee IM, Schaff DA, Harrison NA, Chang CJ, Davis RE, Kingsbury DT, 1996. In: Phytoplasmas: Genomes, Plant Hosts and Vectors [ed. First report of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' (16Sr I group) associated with yellows and little leaf diseases of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis in India. Scientia Horticulturae, 107(2):200-204, Boa E, Arocha Y, Harling R, Tobing C, Kelly P, Reeder R, 2010. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 5(1):117-119. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/208.htm, Kumar S, Singh V, Lakhanpaul S, 2010. 57 (4), 772. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2008.01874.x, Harrison N A, Legard D E, DiBonito R, Richardson P A, 1997. ], 60(2):151-152. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/, Haggis GH, Sinha RC, 1978. Different phytoplasmas associated with identical symptoms: The case of ranunculus phyllody. Molecular characterization of ', http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm, Fauqia Fahmeed, Rosete YA, Acosta Pérez K, Boa E, Lucas J, 2009. Detection and identification of aster yellows phytoplasma associated with lipstick yellow frond disease in Malaysia. EPPO Global Database. First report of a group 16SrI phytoplasma associated with Amaranthus hypochondriacus cladodes in China. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' is naturally transmitted by a wide range of leafhoppers. ], 225:201-222, Hodgetts J, Boonham N, Mumford R, Harrison N, Dickinson M, 2008. V. San Diego, USA: Academic Press, 545-640, Mei CongJin, Wang QingCan, Gui JuCan, Ji YanLing, Yu HanShou, 2016. © Copyright 2020 CAB International. The genomes of four phytoplasmas have been sequenced: "onion yellows", "aster yellows witches' broom" (Candidatus [Ca] Phytoplasma asteris), Ca. Detection of 'CandidatusPhytoplasma asteris' infections is possible by microscopic examination of phloem tissue sections stained with the DNA fluorochrome 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) as well as by electron microscopy. 57 (4), 769. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2008.01849.x, Renu Maurya, Madhupriya, Yamini Chaturvedi, Upadhyaya P P, Rao G P, 2014. Phytoplasmas infecting sour cherry and lilac represent two distinct lineages having close evolutionary affinities with clover phyllody phytoplasma. Association of ', Salehi M, Hosseini SAE, Salehi E, 2016. Detection of aster yellows phytoplasma (16SrI) associated with prickly ash (Zanthoxylum schinifolium S. et Z.) First report of a 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' isolate associated with banana elephantiasis disease in Colombia. African Journal of Microbiology Research. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Informatore Fitopatologico, 45:61-64, Mitrovic J, Kakizawa S, Duduk B, Oshima K, Namba S, Bertaccini A, 2011. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 67:212-219, Schneider B, Ahrens U, Kirkpatrick BC, Seemüller E, 1993. The chromosome was rotated to have dnaA as the first gene. The incidence of aster yellows (AY) disease can be reduced significantly if proper attention is given to all control measures. Phyllodies are leafy structures that develop in place of flowers and transform the infected plants into sterile “zombies” (i.e., plants that serve only for phytoplasma propagation). Detection and identification of aster yellows phytoplasma associated with lipstick yellow frond disease in Malaysia. Lee et al. Keywords: ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’, RFLP, secA gene, 16S rRNA gene Crossandra infundibuliformis (firecracker flower, Acanthaceae) is an evergreen, perennial, flowering plant which is native to South India and Sri Lanka, and valued medicinally (Vadivel & Panwal, 2016). Phytoplasmas: genomes, plant hosts and vectors [ed. Plant Pathology, 57(2):363. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2007.01676.x, Kaminska M, Sliwa H, Malinowski T, Skrzypczak C, 2003. 94 (4, Supplement), S4.86. The identification of a phytoplasma from the Aster Yellows group infecting sugar beet in Hungary. Differentiation of strains in the aster yellows mycoplasmalike organism strain cluster by serological assay with monoclonal antibodies. First report of a group 16SrI, subgroup B, phytoplasma in diseased Epilobium hirsutum in the region of Tallin, Estonia. 54 (2), 199-203. http://www.plantprotection.pl/index.php?option=com_frontpage&Itemid=1 DOI:10.2478/jppr-2014-0030. However, they are of quarantine significance for the Inter-African Phytosanitary Commission. First report of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' (group 16SrI-B) infecting sweet cherries in Turkey. Molecular detection of aster yellows phytoplasma and "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" in carrots affected by the psyllid Trioza apicalis (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Finland. Classification of plant-pathogenic mycoplasma-like organisms using restriction-site analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA. First report of group 16SrI, 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' associated with Mimosa pudica yellows in Indonesia. In fact, the Bermuda grass white-leaf phytoplasma has a genome size of only 530 kb, one of the smallest known genomes o… http://www.cabi.org/CABeBooks/default.aspx?site=107&page=45&LoadModule=PDFHier&BookID=463, Weintraub PG, Zeidan M, Spiegel S, Gera A, 2007. Bulletin of Insectology [First international phytoplasmologist working group meeting. P. asteris’ interactions in citrus, which will greatly assist the … Plant Pathology, 59(2):394. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa, Renu Maurya, Madhupriya, Yamini Chaturvedi, Upadhyaya PP, Rao GP, 2014. > 10°C, Cold average temp. Currently, HLB is associated with the bacteria Candidatus … Bulletin of Insectology [First international phytoplasmologist working group meeting, Bologna, Italy, 12-15 November 2007. Plant Pathology, 55(6):822. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=ppa, Ayman OF, Yogesh Kumar, Vipin Hallan, Zaidi AA, 2010. Wallingford, UK: CABI, xiv + 331 pp. by Weintraub, P. G. \Jones, P.]. First report of Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris associated with yellowing and rosetting of Japanese spurge in Korea. Bulletin of Insectology [First international phytoplasmologist working group meeting, Bologna, Italy, 12-15 November 2007. Then, the ONT reads were mapped to the contigs using minimap2 v2.15 (11) to produce a circular scaffold. First report of phytoplasma infection in hop plants. Detection and molecular characterization of a ', Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Detection and differentiation of phytoplasmas associated with diseases of strawberry in Florida. Please allow clipboard access to copy the image. Plant Pathology, 59(2):397. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa, Borth WB, Fukuda SK, Hamasaki RT, Hu JS, Almeida RPP, 2006. First report of 'Candidatus phytoplasma asteris'-related strain affecting Juniperus plants in Poland. We do not retain these email addresses. Plant Disease, 95(6):767. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis, McCoy RE, Caudwell A, Chang CJ, Chen TA, Chiykowski LN, Cousin MT, Dale JL, de Leeuw GTN, Golino DA, Hackett KJ, Kirkpatrick BC, Marwitz R, Petzold H, Sinha RC, Sugiura M, Whitcomb RF, Yang IL, Zhu BM, Seemnller E, 1989. Plant Disease. There are several reports of phytoplasmas diseases of weed, and ornamental and vegetable crop plants from Europe as well as from North America which have previously been described, mostly on the basis of symptomatology and microscopical examination. EPPO Global database. Identification of a phytoplasma causing yellows of Monarda. First report of phytoplasma ', Raj SK, Khan MS, Snehi SK, Srivastava S, Singh HB, 2006. These leafhopper species are polyphagous and can transmit the pathogens to a wide range of host plants (Lee et al., 1998b, 2004; Weintraub and Beanland, 2006). Detection of a Malaysian mycoplasmalike organism (MLO) and its differentiation from other Asian, European, and North American MLOs by use of cloned chromosomal and extrachromosomal MLO DNA probes. (1992) determined that different symptoms could be induced in Catharanthus roseus (periwinkle) by closely related strains of the AY phytoplasma group. Plant diseases associated with mycoplasma-like organisms. Annual Review of Entomology, 51:91-111. http://www.annualreviews.org, Weintraub PG, Jones P, 2009. Molecular identification of a phytoplasma associated with Elm witches'-broom in China. Journal of Phytopathology, 158(4):317-320. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jph, Fránová J, Pribylová J, Petrzik K, 2009. The Illumina reads were quality (Q) trimmed with a Q20 cutoff; reads shorter than 100 bp were discarded. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 27(1):33-43; 27 ref, Bertaccini A, Contaldo N, Benni A, Curini M, Genovese S, Epifano F, Bellardi MG, 2010. Mixed infection of dahlia plants in Poland with apple proliferation and aster yellows phytoplasmas. Microbiological Research, 156(2):179-184, Khalid Alhudaib, Arocha Y, Wilson M, Jones P, 2007. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. Melochia corchorifolia, a new host of 16SRI-B phytoplasma in China. Differentiation and classification of aster yellows and related European phytoplasmas. ], 64(Supplement):S251-S252. Annals of Applied Biology, 158(3):318-330. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1744-7348, Wei W, Kawakita H, Sato M, 2000. First report of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' related strain associated with Atractylodes lancea malformations in Hubei Province of China. Insect vectors of phytoplasmas. First report of a natural infection of Opuntia sp. First report of a ', Santos-Cervantes ME, Chávez-Medina JA, Fierro-Coronado JA, Ruelas-Ayala RD, Barreras-Soto MA, Méndez-Lozano J, Leyva-López NE, 2007. First report of a Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris related strain associated with cabbage stunting in Greece. Differentiation of strains in the aster yellows mycoplasmalike organism strain cluster by serological assay with monoclonal antibodies. A draft genome sequence is presented for a strain of “Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris” affecting canola plants in Saskatoon, Canada. Single and mixed phytoplasma infections in phyllody- and dwarf-diseased clover plants in Lithuania. Detection of aster yellows phytoplasma in false flax based on PCR and RFLP. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/issue/view/118, Spanò R, Marzachì C, Mascia T, Lucia Bde, Bubici G, Torchetti EM, Rubino L, Gallitelli D, 2011. Bulletin of Insectology [First international phytoplasmologist working group meeting, Bologna, Italy, 12-15 November 2007. 83 (8), 834-842. The most severely affected hosts are carrot, lettuce, onion, spinach and several ornamental crops, including aster, gladiolus, hydrangea, chrysanthemum and purple coneflower. Differentiation of group 16Sr-IB aster yellows phytoplasmas with monoclonal antibodies. Yellowing, decline, sparse foliage and dieback are predominant in woody plant hosts. Detection and differentiation of phytoplasmas associated with diseases of strawberry in Florida. Journal of Plant Pathology, 98(1):175. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3481, Samuitiene M, Jomantiene R, Valiu¯nas D, Navalinskiene M, Davis RE, 2007. Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); foliar symptoms of clover phyllody on Trifolium repens. Plant Disease, 77(8):815-817, Lee IM, Gundersen DE, Hammond RW, Davis RE, 1994. Molecular typing of Coorg black pepper yellows phytoplasma by multiple gene analyses. Journal of Plant Pathology, 89(2):301, Khew KL, Davis RE, Ong CA, Lee I-M, Su HJ, Tsai MC, 1991. Plant Pathology, 58(4):790. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa, Zhang JH, Hogenhout SA, Nault LR, Hoy CW, Miller SA, 2004. Microbiological Research, 159(1):43-50, Chang KF, Hwang SF, Khadhair AH, Kawchuk LM, Howard RJ, Blade SF, 2004. The disease has resulted in significant reductions in cassava root starch content and up to 80% yield loss in parts of Vietnam (Anon., 2014). Characterisation and phylogeny of a phytoplasma inducing sandal spike disease in sandal (Santalum album). > 0°C, dry winters), Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/issue/view/118, Chaturvedi Y, Singh M, Snehi SK, Raj SK, Rao GP, 2010. Plant Disease. Kamińska M, Śliwa H, 2008. The complete genome sequence of “ Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris” RP166, which consists of one 829,546-bp circular chromosome, is presented in this work. B., 2018. First report of ', Fránová J, Simková M, 2009. P. asteris’ species. 88 (12), 1359-1366. However, it is well-known that distantly related phytoplasmas can cause identical symptoms in a given host plant, whereas closely related phytoplasmas can cause distinctly different symptoms. The 16S rRNA gene NT sequence of bitter gourd phytoplasma shared highest identity of 81.7-96.0% with ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’ (Ca. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 62(8):2988-2993; 33 ref, Smith IM, Dunez J, Lelliott RA, Phillips DH, Archer SA(Editors), 1988. Purple coneflower is a host of the aster yellows phytoplasma. Journal of Plant Pathology. The funding for this project was provided by the Human Frontier Science Program (RGP 0024/2015) to S.A.H. Two groups of phytoplasmas from Japan distinguished on the basis of amplification and restriction analysis of 16S rDNA. Phytopathology. Bulletin of Insectology [Second International Phytoplasmologist Working Group Meeting. In Ohio, disease incidence of 100% has been recorded in lettuce fields (Zhang et al., 2004). There are several reports where two or more distinctly different phytoplasmas may induce identical symptoms in a given host plant. Plant Pathology. ], 60(2):143-144. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/, Win NangKyuKyu, Kim YoungHwan, Jung HeeYoung, 2014. The 16S rRNA gene NT sequence of bitter gourd phytoplasma shared highest identity of 81.7-96.0% with ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’ (Ca. The current information about distribution is likely to be just a temporary picture subject to change with further research. Journal of Plant Pathology, 93(4, Supplement):S4.63. Plant Pathology, 59(4):796. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa, Chen J, Pu X, Deng X, Liu S, Li H, Civerolo E, 2009. First report of 'Candidatus phytoplasma asteris' subgroup 16SrI-A associated with a disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum) in Lithuania. To date, more than 17 16SrI subgroups have been delineated. Phytoplasma asteris' (NC_007716) SASA 13/91 NC_007716 KJ819956 Aster yellows phytoplasma ACLR-AY Candidatus Phytoplasma americanum PPT10-NE Candidatus Phytoplasma mali type strain: AP15 23S rRNA Cotton phyllody phytoplasma CoP Spiraea stunt phytoplasma SP1 ribosomal RNA operon A Knautia arvensis phyllody phytoplasma KAP First report of aster yellows phytoplasma in goldenrain tree (, Kaminska M, Sliwa H, 2006. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-3059.1998.00206.x, Win NangKyuKyu, Kim YoungHwan, Jung HeeYoung, 2014. Records of Ca. Plant Disease, 81(3):301-305; 25 ref, Olivier CY, Lowery DT, Stobbs LW, Vincent C, Galka B, Saguez J, Bittner L, Johnson R, Rott M, Masters C, Green M, 2009. Disease incidence may vary from year to year depending on the population trend of the vectors in the field. The library was prepared using the ONT ligation kit (catalog number SQK-LSK109) without shearing or size selection. First report on a yellows disease of Allium altyncolicum associated with phytoplasma infection. Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); phyllody symptoms of AY-disease on a Ranunculus sp. Plant Pathology, 55(6):823. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=ppa, Raj SK, Snehi SK, Khan MS, Kumar S, 2008. europaea (European olive), Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed), Pittosporum undulatum (Australian cheesewood), Prunus persica var. Molecular identification of 16SrI-A, 16SrI-B, 16SrI-C, and 16SrI-L subgroups of phytoplasmas in gramineous plants in Lithuania. Plant Disease. First report of A group 16SrI phytoplasma infecting epazote in China. Journal of General Plant Pathology, 76(5):355-357. http://www.springerlink.com/content/t4669r165410p468/, Baiswar P, Arocha Y, Chandra S, Ngachan SV, 2010. Infection rates varying from 20 to 30% were observed in lettuce and ranunculus fields in southern Italy (Marcone et al., 1995; Parrella et al., 2008). 99 (1), 291. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3850/2492, EPPO, 2014. Preparation of mycoplasma immunogens from plants and a comparison of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies made against primula yellows MLO-associated antigens. First occurrence of aster yellows disease on grapevine in the palatinate area. Plant Disease, 95(7):871. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis, Luan, Y. M., Zhang, J. W., Zhang, F. T., Zhu, T. S., Li, X. D., Tian, Y. P., 2018. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year), Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. Annals of Applied Biology, 159(1):41-48. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1744-7348, Mollov D, Chilvers MI, Jacobs JL, 2014. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Journal of Plant Pathology, 79(3):211-217, Martini M, Lee IM, Bottner KD, Zhao Y, Botti S, Bertaccini A, Harrison NA, Carraro L, Marcone C, Khan AJ, Osler R, 2007. First report of a 16SrI, 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' isolate affecting eggplant and Mikania sp. First report of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' in kumquat (Citrus japonica) with HLB-like symptoms in La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 58(8):1826-1837. http://ijs.sgmjournals.org, Hodgetts J, Chuquillangui C, Muller G, Arocha Y, Gamarra D, Pinillos O, Velit E, Lozada P, Boa E, Boonham N, Mumford R, Barker I, Dickinson M, 2009. Currently, PCR technology is the method of choice for detection and identification of AY group phytoplasmas and has completely replaced the other techniques. EPPO Global database (available online). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the AY phytoplasma group is relatively homogeneous, differing in not more than 3% of the nucleotide positions (Lee et al., 2004). Plant Pathology, 59(2):397. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa, Bedendo IP, Davis RE, Dally EL, 1997. First report of a 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' isolate associated with a witches' broom disease of alfalfa in Bolivia. Identification of aster yellows phytoplasma in garlic and green onion by PCR-based methods. 161 (5), 359-362. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434 DOI:10.1111/jph.12064, Zwolińska A, Borodynko N, Krawczyk K, Pospieszny H, 2016. Plant Disease, 93(6):669. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis, Olivier CY, Séguin-Swartz G, Hegedus D, Barasubiye T, 2006. Plant Disease, 92(4):623-630. Phylogeny and characterization of phytoplasmal NusA and use of the nusA gene in detection of group 16SrI strains.
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