stream Methods: Design: Prospective cross sectional study. An automated system may help streamline the tuberculosis screening process and improve diagnostic performance. The document provides guidance in the following areas: The document also describes new technological developments in chest radiography, such as computer aided detection of TB that holds promise for future use but needs to be further evaluated before WHO guidance is developed. 19. CT is more sensitive than chest radiography in the detection and characterization of both subtle localized or disseminated parenchymal disease and mediastinal lymphadenopathy [37, 42, 72, 73]. Since nearly 86% percent of the tuberculosis cases in the WHO regions were low- and middle-income countries in 2018 , the chest radiography (CXR or chest X-ray) is an important tool for tuberculosis screening and provides useful help in diagnosing tuberculosis since it is a noninvasive, low radiation dose, reduced cost, readily available procedure that can conduct accurate detection. The radiographic diagnosis of TB is initially correct in only 49% of all cases—34% for the diagnosis of primary TB and 59% for the diagnosis of reactivation TB [ 30 ]. In this paper, a three stage detection of TB from chest radiographs is performed. However, a major … Marciniuk Darcy D., MD, FCCP . Chest radiography has a long history of use in TB care and control. 1816-1819, 10.1183/13993003.01064-2015 CrossRef View Record in Scopus Google Scholar Detection of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Patients With a Normal Chest Radiograph. World Health Organization, Geneva 2016. Here the chest image is first segmented using adaptive thresholding. This document provides recommendations on the use chest radiography in TB detection. Tuberculosis is a major global health threat claiming millions of lives each year. The WHO has released a consolidated summary of WHO recommendations on the use chest radiography in TB detection and guidance on programmatic approaches. endstream endobj startxref Methods It is therefore especially suitable for TB screening and triaging. Number of pages: 39 1816-1819, 10.1183/13993003.01064-2015 CrossRef View Record in Scopus Google Scholar Three different pre-trained DCNNs, namely … Chest radiography has a long history of use in TB care and control. A trained classifier further classifies the chest X-ray image as normal or abnormal. Methods T. Pande, M. Pai, F.A. Chest photofluorography, or abreugraphy (also called mass miniature radiography), is a photofluorography technique for mass screening for tuberculosis using a miniature (50 to 100 mm) photograph of the screen of an X-ray fluoroscopy of the thorax, first developed in 1936. Chest radiography has a long history of use in TB care and control. In this systematic review we evaluate the role of chest radiography (CXR) in the diagnostic flow chart for tuberculosis (TB) infection, focusing on latent TB infection (LTBI) in patients requiring medical treatment with biological drugs. tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis, pneumoconiosis, and location of peripherally inserted central catheters. Coronavirus disease outbreak (COVID-2019), Coronavirus disease outbreak (COVID-19) », Supranational Reference Laboratory Network, Addressing needs of vulnerable populations, Global Task Force on TB impact measurement, Global Task Force on Digital Health for TB, TPPs and priority digital health products for TB, Chest radiography in tuberculosis detection. While the total number of tuberculosis cases has been decreasing over the last years, the rise of drug-resistant tuberculosis has reduced the chance of controlling the disease. We are investigating the possibility of discriminating automatically between drug-resistant and drug-sensitive tuberculosis in chest X-rays by means of image analysis and machine learning methods. hÞbbd```b``­‘Œ`RD2‰‚Hæ¥ ’Ý Dr(‚ÙÀì`ò?˜ä«O³9@$—ˆ2‘“@*ÓîMæ“`“À¤˜’ÿb`bd`| ŠÑ„üÏÀ¸ý#@€ ´Ôa A main tool for diagnosing tuberculosis is the conventional chest X-ray. Chest Radiography in Tuberculosis; WHO Libr. Google Scholar; These software could facilitate the scale-up of chest x-ray for pulmonary tuberculosis triage in resource-limited settings without personnel trained in radiographic interpretation. Over a century ago it was used to detect patients with active disease for management and infection control, often in sanatoria. This study compared analog to digital images for intra-rater agreement across formats and prevalence of changes related to silicosis and tuberculosis among South African … CXRs were analysed using CAD4TB, which computed an image abnormality score (0–100). Therefore, in this study, we examine the efficiency of deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) for detecting TB on chest radiographs using public ChestXray14 as training dataset and Montgomery and Shenzhen as two external testing datasets. Based on the segmented image, features are extracted which will be discussed later in detail. Then, the CAD system in the detection of specific disease (pulmonary nodules, tuberculosis, and interstitial lung diseases) and multiple diseases is … Multiple preprocessing techniques, tSNE visualization and data augmentation are first performed. CT is more sensitive than chest radiography in the detection and characterization of both subtle localized or disseminated parenchymal disease and mediastinal lymphadenopathy [37, 42, 72, 73]. 359 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<982A26DDBAA2493ABE39919807E6605B><55E0540FE5CB134DAAD691EEDECADBE7>]/Index[336 41]/Info 335 0 R/Length 111/Prev 1108296/Root 337 0 R/Size 377/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Objective: To estimate the diagnostic accuracy of chest radiography in the detection of chest lymphadenopathy in children with clinically suspected pulmonary tuberculosis. The WHO has released a consolidated summary of WHO recommendations on the use chest radiography in TB detection and guidance on … Vietnamese Coconut Shake Recipe, Enterprise Community Partners Headquarters Address, Kde Vs Gnome Performance, How To Replace Lithium Ion Battery Cells, Tricalcium Phosphate Supplement, Strawberry Juice Cocktail Recipe, Cookie Pie Recipe, Fish Clipart Outline, Titan M1 Gym Machine Price, Higher Education Consortiums, " />

chest radiography in tuberculosis detection

The WHO has released a consolidated summary of WHO recommendations on the use chest radiography in TB detection and guidance on programmatic approaches. The reference standard was CT chest scan with contrast injection, obtained as soon as feasible after chest x ray, and always within 3 days. chest radiograph (CXR) by clinical officers for the de-tection of tuberculosis (TB). Early diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is necessary for effective treatment. Additionally, quality assurance, safety, strategic planning, and … Setting: A short stay ward in a children’s hospital in South Africa. %%EOF Tuberculosis (TB) is is an infectious disease that generally attacks the lungs and causes death for millions of people annually. Although recent diagnostic strategies have given specific prominence to bacteriology, CXR can be … Methods: Design: Prospective cross sectional study. Chest radiography represents the most commonly performed radiological test for a multitude of non-emergent and emergent clinical indications. In addition, the advent of digital radiography has improved the quality and safety of the procedure and has led to possibilities such as telemedicine and Chest radiography, or chest X-ray (CXR) is a rapid imaging tool that allows for easy identification of lung abnormalities. Chest radiography in tuberculosis detection—summary of current WHO recommendations and guidance on programmatic approaches. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) has shown advantages in medical image recognition applications as powerful models to extract informative features from images. The paper presents several common chest X-ray datasets and briefly introduces general image preprocessing procedures, such as contrast enhancement and segmentation, and bone suppression techniques that are applied to chest radiography. Tuberculosis (TB) is is an infectious disease that generally attacks the lungs and causes death for millions of people annually. Unlike most deep learning networks applied to tuberculosis diagnosis, their network is faster and more efficient than previous models but preserves their accuracy. Two patients with complicated pregnancy outcomes, foetal loss and live premature delivery at 5 and 7 months of gestation, respectively, and maternal loss, were diagnosed with pulmonary TB. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) has shown advantages in medical image recognition applications as powerful models to extract informative features from images. In primary pulmonary TB, chest radiography remains the mainstay for the diagnosis of parenchymal disease, while computed tomography (CT) is more sensitive in detecting lymphadenopathy. Darcy D. Marciniuk. Recommendations on CXR in TB detection are included in several We compared the automated readings and the read- For each detection method (symptom examination only, symptom examination plus chest radiography or other alternatives), the detection rate of pulmonary tuberculosis patients among contacts was derived from contact investigation form records. Cavitation or consolidation of the apexes of the upper lobes of the lung or the tree-in … Strategic planning for use of chest radiography in national tuberculosis programmes. 336 0 obj <> endobj Chest radiography and deep-learning-based image segmentation techniques can be utilized for TB diagnostics. Chest radiography represents the most commonly performed radiological test for a multitude of non-emergent and emergent clinical indications. In this paper, a three stage detection of TB from chest radiographs is performed. Presentation of tuberculosis (TB) in pregnancy may be atypical with diagnostic challenges. Correspondence to: Dr. Darcy D. Marciniuk, Division of Tuberculosis Control and The Research Center for the Elimination of Tuberculosis, 5th Floor Ellis Hall, Royal University Hospital, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 0W8 Canada . Correspondence. Objective: To estimate the diagnostic accuracy of chest radiography in the detection of chest lymphadenopathy in children with clinically suspected pulmonary tuberculosis. All chest radiographs were performed erect with 200 speed screens out of bucky at a film focal spot distance of 150 cm. Diagnostic accuracy might be improved by refining radiological criteria for lymphadenopathy. Cat. Over a century ago it was used to detect patients with active disease for management and infection control, often in sanatoria. 5. There is consensus among experts that progress in controlling tuberculosis in high-burden countries requires enhanced case detection. Chest radiography is an essential tool for the early detection of TB, and therefore fundamental to achieve the targets set out in WHO’s End TB Strategy. Chest radiography in tuberculosis detection: summary of current WHO recommendations and guidance on programmatic approaches View/ Open 9789241511506-eng.pdf (‎1.057Mb)‎ In this systematic review we evaluate the role of chest radiography (CXR) in the diagnostic flow chart for tuberculosis (TB) infection, focusing on latent TB infection (LTBI) in patients requiring medical treatment with biological drugs. Publication date: 2016 We applied an 18. automated image interpretation algorithm, CAD4TBv5, prospectively in an HIV-endemic area. Objective: To estimate the diagnostic accuracy of chest radiography in the detection of chest lymphadenopathy in children with clinically suspected pulmonary tuberculosis. proposed a simple convolutional neural network optimised for fast tuberculosis screening using chest X-rays [13]. Affiliations. Chest Radiography in Tuberculosis Detection—Summary of Current WHO Recommendations and Guidance on Programmatic Approaches; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2016. World Health Organization, Geneva 2016. There are no radiological features which are in themselves diagnostic of primary mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (TB) but a chest X-ray may provide some clues to the diagnosis. In primary pulmonary TB, chest radiography remains the mainstay for the diagnosis of parenchymal disease, while computed tomography (CT) is more sensitive in detecting lymphadenopathy. Early diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is necessary for effective treatment. “The chest radiograph (CXR) has historically been one of the primary tools for detecting tuberculosis (TB), especially pulmonary TB. These are typical features of primary TB. Detection of tuberculosis using digital chest radiography: automated reading vs. interpretation by clinical officers P ... radiography. DESIGN: A retrospective analysis was performed on 161 subjects enrolled in a TB specimen bank study. 0 There are no radiological features which are in themselves diagnostic of primary mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (TB) but a chest X-ray may provide some clues to the diagnosis This image shows consolidation of the upper zone with ipsilateral hilar enlargement due to lymphadenopathy These are typical features of primary TB Data: Geneva, Switzerland, 2016 Setting: A short stay ward in a children’s hospital in South Africa. The paper presents several common chest X-ray datasets and briefly introduces general image preprocessing procedures, such as contrast enhancement and segmentation, and bone suppression techniques that are applied to chest radiography. Google Scholar; These software could facilitate the scale-up of chest x-ray for pulmonary tuberculosis triage in resource-limited settings without personnel trained in radiographic interpretation. There is consensus among experts that progress in controlling tuberculosis in high-burden countries requires enhanced case detection. "Chest radiography in tuberculosis detection” I. However, chest radiographs may be used to rule out the possibility of pulmonary TB in a person who has a positive reaction to the tuberculin skin test and no symptoms of the disease. Detection of mediastinal lymphadenopathy on chest x ray to diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis in children must be interpreted with caution. Chest radiography, or chest X-ray (CXR), is an important tool for triaging and screening for pulmonary TB, and it is also useful to aid diagnosis when pulmonary TB cannot be confirmed bacteriologically. Chest radiography is an essential tool for the early detection of TB, and therefore fundamental to achieve the targets set out in WHO’s End TB Strategy. “The chest radiograph (CXR) has historically been one of the primary tools for detecting tuberculosis (TB), especially pulmonary TB. This image shows consolidation of the upper zone with ipsilateral hilar enlargement due to lymphadenopathy. Specifically, the document provides information on chest radiography as a triage tool, diagnostic aid, and a screening tool. Detection of active pulmonary tuberculosis on chest radiographs (CRs) is critical for the diagnosis and screening of tuberculosis. Chest radiography is an essential tool for the early detection of TB, and therefore fundamental to achieve the targets set out in WHO’s End TB Strategy. Languages: English The worldwide TB mortality rate is decreasing due … O0WB;×ðöÞÿ«Ó¡ÈQffÐ’ B¦4ÛìnTóRxŸ™þJà›¡¼ýOÒF³. Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious worldwide public health threat [ 1 ]. To reduce To reduce Deep learning–based automated detection algorithm for active pulmonary tuberculosis on chest radiographs: diagnostic performance in systematic screening of asymptomatic individuals | springermedizin.de Introduction II. Here the chest image is first segmented using adaptive thresholding. 5. Chest radiography as a triage tool III. BACKGROUND: Continuing use of analog film and digital chest radiography for screening and surveillance for pneumoconiosis and tuberculosis in lower and middle income countries raises questions of equivalence of disease detection. Then, the CAD system in the detection of specific disease (pulmonary nodules, tuberculosis, and interstitial lung diseases) and multiple diseases is … Pasa et al. outperformed the average radiologist on pneumonia detection. T. Pande, M. Pai, F.A. Methods: Design: Prospective cross sectional study. Editors: World Health Organization Evaluation of computer aided detection of tuberculosis on chest radiography among people with diabetes in Karachi Pakistan. [Google Scholar] World Health Organisation. We applied an 18. automated image interpretation algorithm, CAD4TBv5, prospectively in an HIV-endemic area. Patients: Consecutive children under 14 years of age admitted with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis. BACKGROUND: Continuing use of analog film and digital chest radiography for screening and surveillance for pneumoconiosis and tuberculosis in lower and middle income countries raises questions of equivalence of disease detection. tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis, pneumoconiosis, and location of peripherally inserted central catheters. Tuberculosis (TB) is very dangerous and rapidly spread disease in the world. View chest radiography in TB who.pdf from MEDICAL 123 at Malikussaleh University. outperformed the average radiologist on pneumonia detection. Chest radiography (chest X-ray or CXR) is an economical and easy-to-use medical imaging and diagnostic technique. Technical specification, quality assurance and safety. Tuberculosis (TB) is the single most common life-threatening infectious disease and one of the leading causes of death worldwide [ 1 – 3 ]. Systematic reviews. A trained classifier further classifies the chest X-ray image as normal or abnormal. Computer-aided digital chest radiograph (CXR) interpretation can facilitate high-throughput 17. screening for tuberculosis (TB), but its use in population-based screening has been limited. Since nearly 86% percent of the tuberculosis cases in the WHO regions were low- and middle-income countries in 2018 , the chest radiography (CXR or chest X-ray) is an important tool for tuberculosis screening and provides useful help in diagnosing tuberculosis since it is a noninvasive, low radiation dose, reduced cost, readily available procedure that can conduct accurate detection. Based on the segmented image, features are extracted which will be discussed later in detail. Strategic planning for use of chest radiography in national TB control. Diagnostic accuracy of chest radiography in detecting mediastinal lymphadenopathy in suspected pulmonary tuberculosis. proposed a simple convolutional neural network optimised for fast tuberculosis screening using chest X-rays [13]. The radiographic diagnosis of TB is initially correct in only 49% of all cases—34% for the diagnosis of primary TB and 59% for the diagnosis of reactivation TB [ 30 ]. Deep learning with convolutional neural networks can accurately classify tuberculosis at chest radiography with an area under the curve of 0.99. Setting: A short stay ward in a children’s hospital in South Africa. Chest radiographic reports of all 2586 asymptomatic individuals with positive TST results who underwent pre-employment evaluation between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2007, were evaluated to determine the frequency of detection of evidence of active tuberculosis (TB) or latent TB infection (LTBI) and the spectrum of imaging findings. tuberculosis from other pathologies, chest radiography interpretation should be limited to findings such as the detection of the Ghon complex, miliary nodules, and airway compression, and it is important to recognise its limitations. ISBN: 9789241511506. Khan, et al.Use of chest radiography in the 22 highest tuberculosis burden countries Eur Respir J, 46 (2015), pp. Over a century ago it was used to detect patients with active disease for management and infection control, often in sanatoria. 19. %PDF-1.6 %âãÏÓ Multiple preprocessing techniques, tSNE visualization and data augmentation are first performed. Khan, et al.Use of chest radiography in the 22 highest tuberculosis burden countries Eur Respir J, 46 (2015), pp. Pasa et al. Therefore, in this study, we examine the efficiency of deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) for detecting TB on chest radiographs using public ChestXray14 as training dataset and Montgomery and Shenzhen as two external testing datasets. Computer-aided digital chest radiograph (CXR) interpretation can facilitate high-throughput 17. screening for tuberculosis (TB), but its use in population-based screening has been limited. Unlike most deep learning networks applied to tuberculosis diagnosis, their network is faster and more efficient than previous models but preserves their accuracy. For a long time, chest radiography (CXR) for TB detection was placed in the end of diagnostic algorithms because: Focus was on highly infectious TB (chronic productive cough, smear positive) – "CXR not needed" Resource constraints (equipment, radiologists, quality assurance) However, a major limitation of chest radiography … This study compared analog to digital images for intra-rater agreement across formats and prevalence of changes related to silicosis and tuberculosis among … CHEST RADIOGRAPHY IN TUBERCULOSIS DETECTION Summary of … Four clinical offi-cers scored the CXRs for abnormalities consistent with TB. Chest radiography in tuberculosis detection—summary of current WHO recommendations and guidance on programmatic approaches. CXR in WHO’s End T Strategy.. CXR has high sensitivity, but limited specificity for detecting pulmonary TB. hÞ¼TmKSa¾Ï9Ûq¶J—s;“pNgF/¶3I¦ ŽŒÔ1Oó%›ïo-¶l0B嬛‰ ÑRj‘ÊH}I˜&Y¬—‰_êKêTRGYP„Qù±çœ#µú îûºžë¹¯ë À7°,H‚?¿$đ Ñ w„-;b4ÿ †2 Results: Sixty-nine cases of pulmonary tuberculosis were identified among a total of 8137 contacts after an Chest radiography as a screening tool V. Technical specification, quality assurance and safety VI. standard for TB diagnosis, chest radiography has recently come back into favour for its ability to detect TB early, often before the onset of clear symptoms. It is an airborne disease that is caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacteria, which was first discovered in 1882 [ 2 ]. Deep learning with convolutional neural networks can accurately classify tuberculosis at chest radiography with an area under the curve of 0.99. Chest radiography as a diagnostic aid IV. Chest photofluorography, or abreugraphy (also called mass miniature radiography), is a photofluorography technique for mass screening for tuberculosis using a miniature (50 to 100 mm) photograph of the screen of an X-ray fluoroscopy of the thorax, first developed in 1936. Systematic reviews. Chest radiography and deep-learning-based image segmentation techniques can be utilized for TB diagnostics. 376 0 obj <>stream Methods: Design: Prospective cross sectional study. An automated system may help streamline the tuberculosis screening process and improve diagnostic performance. The document provides guidance in the following areas: The document also describes new technological developments in chest radiography, such as computer aided detection of TB that holds promise for future use but needs to be further evaluated before WHO guidance is developed. 19. CT is more sensitive than chest radiography in the detection and characterization of both subtle localized or disseminated parenchymal disease and mediastinal lymphadenopathy [37, 42, 72, 73]. Since nearly 86% percent of the tuberculosis cases in the WHO regions were low- and middle-income countries in 2018 , the chest radiography (CXR or chest X-ray) is an important tool for tuberculosis screening and provides useful help in diagnosing tuberculosis since it is a noninvasive, low radiation dose, reduced cost, readily available procedure that can conduct accurate detection. The radiographic diagnosis of TB is initially correct in only 49% of all cases—34% for the diagnosis of primary TB and 59% for the diagnosis of reactivation TB [ 30 ]. In this paper, a three stage detection of TB from chest radiographs is performed. However, a major … Marciniuk Darcy D., MD, FCCP . Chest radiography has a long history of use in TB care and control. 1816-1819, 10.1183/13993003.01064-2015 CrossRef View Record in Scopus Google Scholar Detection of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Patients With a Normal Chest Radiograph. World Health Organization, Geneva 2016. Here the chest image is first segmented using adaptive thresholding. This document provides recommendations on the use chest radiography in TB detection. Tuberculosis is a major global health threat claiming millions of lives each year. The WHO has released a consolidated summary of WHO recommendations on the use chest radiography in TB detection and guidance on programmatic approaches. endstream endobj startxref Methods It is therefore especially suitable for TB screening and triaging. Number of pages: 39 1816-1819, 10.1183/13993003.01064-2015 CrossRef View Record in Scopus Google Scholar Three different pre-trained DCNNs, namely … Chest radiography has a long history of use in TB care and control. A trained classifier further classifies the chest X-ray image as normal or abnormal. Methods T. Pande, M. Pai, F.A. Chest photofluorography, or abreugraphy (also called mass miniature radiography), is a photofluorography technique for mass screening for tuberculosis using a miniature (50 to 100 mm) photograph of the screen of an X-ray fluoroscopy of the thorax, first developed in 1936. Chest radiography has a long history of use in TB care and control. In this systematic review we evaluate the role of chest radiography (CXR) in the diagnostic flow chart for tuberculosis (TB) infection, focusing on latent TB infection (LTBI) in patients requiring medical treatment with biological drugs. tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis, pneumoconiosis, and location of peripherally inserted central catheters. Coronavirus disease outbreak (COVID-2019), Coronavirus disease outbreak (COVID-19) », Supranational Reference Laboratory Network, Addressing needs of vulnerable populations, Global Task Force on TB impact measurement, Global Task Force on Digital Health for TB, TPPs and priority digital health products for TB, Chest radiography in tuberculosis detection. While the total number of tuberculosis cases has been decreasing over the last years, the rise of drug-resistant tuberculosis has reduced the chance of controlling the disease. We are investigating the possibility of discriminating automatically between drug-resistant and drug-sensitive tuberculosis in chest X-rays by means of image analysis and machine learning methods. hÞbbd```b``­‘Œ`RD2‰‚Hæ¥ ’Ý Dr(‚ÙÀì`ò?˜ä«O³9@$—ˆ2‘“@*ÓîMæ“`“À¤˜’ÿb`bd`| ŠÑ„üÏÀ¸ý#@€ ´Ôa A main tool for diagnosing tuberculosis is the conventional chest X-ray. Chest Radiography in Tuberculosis; WHO Libr. Google Scholar; These software could facilitate the scale-up of chest x-ray for pulmonary tuberculosis triage in resource-limited settings without personnel trained in radiographic interpretation. Over a century ago it was used to detect patients with active disease for management and infection control, often in sanatoria. This study compared analog to digital images for intra-rater agreement across formats and prevalence of changes related to silicosis and tuberculosis among South African … CXRs were analysed using CAD4TB, which computed an image abnormality score (0–100). Therefore, in this study, we examine the efficiency of deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) for detecting TB on chest radiographs using public ChestXray14 as training dataset and Montgomery and Shenzhen as two external testing datasets. Based on the segmented image, features are extracted which will be discussed later in detail. Then, the CAD system in the detection of specific disease (pulmonary nodules, tuberculosis, and interstitial lung diseases) and multiple diseases is … Multiple preprocessing techniques, tSNE visualization and data augmentation are first performed. CT is more sensitive than chest radiography in the detection and characterization of both subtle localized or disseminated parenchymal disease and mediastinal lymphadenopathy [37, 42, 72, 73]. 359 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<982A26DDBAA2493ABE39919807E6605B><55E0540FE5CB134DAAD691EEDECADBE7>]/Index[336 41]/Info 335 0 R/Length 111/Prev 1108296/Root 337 0 R/Size 377/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Objective: To estimate the diagnostic accuracy of chest radiography in the detection of chest lymphadenopathy in children with clinically suspected pulmonary tuberculosis. The WHO has released a consolidated summary of WHO recommendations on the use chest radiography in TB detection and guidance on …

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