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de bello gallico book 5 summary

Caesar De Bello Gallico Book 6 Sec 13 lines 1 to 18 - Duration: 7:46. magisterdavis 2,701 views. Thither he proceeds with his legions: he finds the place admirably fortified by nature and art; he, however, undertakes to attack it in two directions. Having related the exploit and roused the Aduatuci, the next day he arrived among the Nervii, and entreats �that they should not throw away the opportunity of liberating themselves forever and of punishing the Romans for those wrongs which they had received from them;� [he tells them] �that two lieutenants have been slain, and that a large portion of the army has perished; that it was not a matter of difficulty for the legion which was wintering with Cicero to be cut off, when suddenly assaulted; he declares himself ready to cooperate in that design. This circumstance turns aside his scabbard and obstructs his right hand when attempting to draw his sword: the enemy crowd around him when [thus] embarrassed. For the present, therefore, inasmuch as he knew that Cicero was released from the blockade, and thought that he might, on that account, relax his speed, he halted there and fortifies a camp in the most favorable position he can. A few manage to get away from the battle and reach the camp of Titus Labienus and tell him all that has happened. 19 Cassivellaunus, as we have stated above, all hope [rising out] of battle being laid aside, the greater part of his forces being dismissed, and about 4,000 charioteers only being left, used to observe our marches and retire a little from the road, and conceal himself in intricate and woody places, and in those neighborhoods in which he had discovered we were about to march, he used to drive the cattle and the inhabitants from the fields into the woods; and, when our cavalry, for the sake of plundering and ravaging the more freely, scattered themselves among the fields, he used to send out charioteers from the woods by all the well-known roads and paths, and to the great danger of our horse, engage with them; and this source of fear hindered them from straggling very extensively. Indutiomarus, however, continues to augment his forces, getting various exiles and condemned persons in Gaul to join him. Thus, except for the Aedui and Remi, Caesar remains suspicious of almost all the Gallic states. When the fight was going on most vigorously before the fortifications, Pulfio, one of them, says, �Why do you hesitate, Varenus? Grammar Notes. 17 The following day the enemy halted on the hills, a distance from our camp, and presented themselves in small parties, and began to challenge our horse to battle with less spirit than the day before. De Bello Gallico by Caio Júlio César. Nor did any period of the whole winter pass over without fresh anxiety to Caesar, or, without his receiving some intelligence respecting the meetings and commotions of the Gauls. Being repulsed by our cavalry, they concealed themselves in woods, as they had secured a place admirably fortified by nature and by art, which, as it seemed, they had before prepared on account of a civil war; for all entrances to it were shut up by a great number of felled trees. Caesar goes to port Itius; his policy in taking certain Gallic chieftains with him to Britain.—VI. All these he orders to be constructed for lightness and expedition, to which object their lowness contributes greatly. He keeps only 4,000 charioteers and follows the Romans, harassing their foraging parties. The Trinobantes send ambassadors to Caesar respecting the conduct of Cassivellaunus towards Mandubratius.—XXII. He has now suffered many defeats, has had his lands destroyed and is currently having trouble with subjects beginning to revolt; therefore, he asks for peace. Then the smoke of the fires was seen in the distance, a circumstance which banished all doubt of the arrival of the legions. Besides that happened, which would necessarily be the case, that the soldiers for the most part quitted their ensigns and hurried to seek and carry off from the baggage whatever each thought valuable, and all parts were filled with uproar and lamentation. or what [better] opportunity of signalizing your valor do you seek? There is also an 8th book, written by Aulus Hirtius. Resistance is made by our men in the same manner as the day before; this same thing is done afterward during the remaining days. After this defeat, many of the tribes quit the defense of Britain and the enemy strength is greatly diminished. All these differ from each other in language, customs and laws. Which circumstance having been reported [to them], the Pirustae send embassadors to him to inform him that no part of those proceedings was done by public deliberation, and assert that they were ready to make compensation by all means for the injuries [inflicted]. He proclaims Cingetorix, his son-in-law who had refused to desert Caesar, an enemy and confiscates his goods. 6 There was together with the others, Dumnorix, the Aeduan, of whom we have made previous mention. We, in our inquiries about that matter, ascertained nothing, except that, by accurate measurements with water, we perceived the nights to be shorter there than on the continent. This he carries out bound about his javelin; and mixing among the Gauls without any suspicion by being a Gaul, he reaches Caesar. Latin De Bello Gallico Caesar Book 4.24-.36.1 13 Terms. The Britains again prepare for war, and receive a signal defeat.—XVIII. De Bello Alexandrino (also Bellum Alexandrinum; On the Alexandrine War) is a Latin work continuing Julius Caesar's commentaries, De Bello Gallico and De Bello Civili. Clad in the bloodred cloak he usually wore “as his distinguishing mark of battle,” Caesar led his troops to victories throughout the province, his major triumph being the defeat of the Gallic army led by Next day Indutiomarus, as usual, advances to the camp and his horsemen shower the settlement with missiles, shouting to the Romans, but, oddly, get no answer. Gaius Fabius takes a legion to the Morini, Quintus Cicero takes one to the Nervii, Lucius Roscius takes one to the Esubii, and Titus Labienus takes another to the Remi. The rest of the army is too far away to help in time, so Caesar decides to use 400 horsemen from the nearest cantonments. 7 Having learned this fact, Caesar, because he had conferred so much honor upon the Aeduan state, determined that Dumnorix should be restrained and deterred by whatever means he could; and that, because he perceived his insane designs to be proceeding further and further, care should be taken lest he might be able to injure him and the commonwealth. Cassivellaunus next calls in forces from the other districts of Kent and attacks Caesar's naval camp, but is quickly put down by the Romans. Anthropo Chap 5 Vocab 15 Terms. Ignorant of the real seriousness of his plight, he defends his position as best he can, first repairing weak spots in the walls and setting up 120 defense towers during the night Next morning his troops face large enemy forces and in the days following they continue the resistance. The Briton's method of using chariots — retreating, then fighting on foot — puts the Roman cavalry at a disadvantage. The climate is more temperate than in Gaul, the colds being less severe. But, while the minds of all were occupied, Dumnorix began to take his departure from the camp homeward with the cavalry of the Aedui, Caesar being ignorant of it. Caesar has the Trinobantes send him hostages and grain and he grants their request. He begins to assemble an army for war and hides in the forest those people who cannot fight. 20 In the mean time, the Trinobantes, almost the most powerful state of those parts, from which the young man, Mandubratius embracing the protection of Caesar had come to the continent of Gaul to [meet] him (whose father, Imanuentius, had possessed the sovereignty in that state, and had been killed by Cassivellaunus; he himself had escaped death by flight), send embassadors to Caesar, and promise that they will surrender themselves to him and perform his commands; they entreat him to protect Mandubratius from the violence of Cassivellaunus, and send to their state some one to preside over it, and possess the government. These things being discovered from [some] prisoners and deserters, Caesar, sending forward the cavalry, ordered the legions to follow them immediately. He fearing, because several were involved in the act, that the state might revolt at their instigation, orders Lucius Plancus, with a legion, to proceed quickly from Belgium to the Carnutes, and winter there, and arrest and send to him the persons by whose instrumentality he should discover that Tasgetius was slain. 45 In proportion as the attack became daily more formidable and violent, and particularly, because, as a great number of the soldiers were exhausted with wounds, the matter had come to a small number of defenders, more frequent letters and messages were sent to Caesar; a part of which messengers were taken and tortured to death in the sight of our soldiers. The full work is split into eight sections, Book 1 to Book 8, each varying in size from approximately 5,000 to 15,000 words. Book 8 was written by Aulus Hirtius, after Caesar's death. In the mean while, Indutiomarus, according to his daily practice, advances up to the camp and spends a great part of the day there: his horse cast their weapons, and with very insulting language call out our men to battle. During the night as many as 120 towers are raised with incredible dispatch out of the timber which they had collected for the purpose of fortification: the things which seemed necessary to the work are completed. Labienus, having learned the death of Sabinus and the destruction of the cohorts, as all the forces of the Treviri had come against him, beginning to fear lest, if he made a departure from his winter-quarters, resembling a flight, he should not be able to support the attack of the enemy, particularly since he knew them to be elated by their recent victory, sends back a letter to Caesar, informing him with what great hazard he would lead out his legion from winter-quarters; he relates at large the affairs which had taken place among the Eburones; he informs him that all the infantry and cavalry of the Treviri had encamped at a distance of only three miles from his own camp. The conflict is more than a skirmish; it is of major proportions, for Trebonius has three legions, plus his cavalry with him — in all 15,000 to 17,000 men. But at noon, when Caesar had sent three legions, and all the cavalry, with C. Trebonius, the lieutenant, for the purpose of foraging, they flew upon the foragers suddenly from all quarters, so that they did not keep off [even] from the standards and the legions. Latin De Bello Gallico Caesar Book 5.24-.36 13 Terms. One angle of this side, which is in Kent, whither almost all ships from Gaul are directed, [looks] to the east; the lower looks to the south. The quarters of Cicero attacked by the Eburones; he sends intelligence to Caesar.—XLIV. viii • A Notebook for Caesar’s De Bello Gallico More than grammar, forms, and even strange word order, it is vocabulary that will hold you back from reading the Latin language with fl uency and comprehension. When they near Ambiorix, they are told to put down their arms and while Ambiorix discusses peace with Sabinus, they are all surrounded and killed. 30 This discussion having been held on the two sides, when opposition was offered strenuously by Cotta and the principal officers, �Prevail,� said Sabinus, �if so you wish it;� and he said it with a louder voice, that a great portion of the soldiers might hear him; �nor am I the person among you,� he said, �who is most powerfully alarmed by the danger of death; these will be aware of it, and then, if any thing disastrous shall have occurred, they will demand a reckoning at your hands; these, who, if it were permitted by you, united three days hence with the nearest winter-quarters, may encounter the common condition of war with the rest, and not, as if forced away and separated far from the rest, perish either by the sword or by famine.� The contrast between the brave hut cautious Cotta and the foolhardy Sabinus is intentional; one acts like a fool, the other like a soldier. Book 3 113 6.3 Summary of the results of the analysis of the excerpts from De Bello Civili and a comparison with the results from De Bello Gallico … They do not, for example, eat rabbits, wild fowl, or even geese. I. Caesar, apprehending commotions in Gaul, ... 5 This part of Gaul having been tranquilized, he applies himself entirely both in mind and soul to the war with the Treviri and Ambiorix. After hearing of Sabinus' defeat, almost all of the Gallic states begin to plan for war and, throughout the winter, Caesar receives reports of the brewing rebellion. The ruler of the Carnutes had been Tasgetius, a descendant of former kings and a man who helped Rome in the past; Caesar had declared him ruler, but after a two-year reign, he was killed by enemies within the state. 1 Lucius Domitius and Appius Claudius being consuls [54 B.C. Immediately the whole host turn from Pulfio to him, supposing the other to be pierced through by the javelin. The Trinobantes, the strongest state in the area, ask Caesar for protection and also plead with him to send them Mandubracius as ruler. De Bello Gallico Book 1. Tin is produced in the midland, and iron on the coast; bronze is imported. His rival runs up to him and succors him in this emergency. The Treveri and Indutiomarus try to bargain with the Germans to cross the Rhine and fight with them against Caesar, but the Germans refuse, saying they have twice been defeated by Roman armies. emma_dalbo. Cotta and Sabinus are alarmed at the report brought to them. The shield of Pulfio is pierced and a javelin is fastened in his belt. They themselves rushed out of the woods to fight here and there, and prevented our men from entering their fortifications. There, droughts have diminished the grain supply and Caesar is forced to distribute his legions over several states. Two weeks later, disorder breaks out. He writes to Labienus to come with his legion to the frontiers of the Nervii, if he could do so to the advantage of the commonwealth: he does not consider that the remaining portion of the army, because it was somewhat further distant, should be waited for; but assembles about 400 horse from the nearest winter-quarters. Ambiorix quickly tells his troops to keep at a safe distance in case of another Roman charge. Science, Tech, Math Science Math Social Sciences Computer Science ... Julius Caesar Summary and Study Guide. Labienus' camp is well-fortified and he feels no danger, but when he learns from Cingetorix of Indutiomarus' speech at the convention, he sends messengers to neighboring states with orders to supply him cavalry. From him they received information of the imminent danger of Cicero and the legion. The battle lasts from dawn until evening and when the causalities are counted, it is discovered that among them is Titus Balventius, chief centurion of his legion. And, in spite of their having no tools, they manage to dig, with their swords, an entrenchment fifteen miles in circumference. Dumnorix, who was to have been in that number, by craft and violence, escapes attending Caesar, but is slain.—VII. Looking for the plot summary of De Bello Gallico and Other Commentaries ? Caesar's maneuver succeeds: seeing no Romans on the rampart, the enemy advance and fire missiles, then announce that anyone who comes over to their side before the final hour may do so without danger, but that after that time, there will be no mercy. But, curiously, the natives do not take nearly the advantage of natural resources that they might. And it so happened, that out of so large a number of ships, in so many voyages, neither in this nor in the previous year was any ship missing which conveyed soldiers; but very few out of those which were sent back to him from the continent empty, as the soldiers of the former convoy had been disembarked, and out of those (sixty in number) which Labienus had taken care to have built, reached their destination; almost all the rest were driven back, and when Caesar had waited for them for some time in vain, lest he should be debarred from a voyage by the season of the year, inasmuch as the equinox was at hand, he of necessity stowed his soldiers the more closely, and, a very great calm coming on, after he had weighed anchor at the beginning of the second watch, he reached land at break of day and brought in all the ships in safety. An assembly being held the following day, he states the occurrence; he consoles and encourages the soldiers; he suggests, that the disaster, which had been occasioned by the misconduct and rashness of his lieutenant, should be borne with a patient mind, because by the favor of the immortal gods and their own valor, neither was lasting joy left to the enemy, nor very lasting grief to them. At this, the Romans are disheartened; they detest having to assume a defensive position. Caesar receives hostages, and leads back his army into Gaul.—XXIV. The flame having abated a little, and a tower having been brought up in a particular place and touching the rampart, the centurions of the third cohort retired from the place in which they were standing, and drew off all their men: they began to call on the enemy by gestures and by words, to enter if they wished; but none of them dared to advance. The enemy, having remained only a short time, did not sustain the attack of our soldiers, and hurried away on the other side of the town. That day he is able to move twenty miles and at sundown further plans are made: Crassus is left with a legion to take care of Samarobriva, the baggage, hostages, documents, and winter food supply. courtneydunne. The mission is successful; Caesar does receive the message late in the day and in turn sends a quick message to Crassus, twenty-five miles away, instructing him to start at midnight and join Caesar's troops. He goes into the territories of the Nervii by long marches. He himself in the mean while, until he had stationed the legions and knew that the several winter-quarters were fortified, determined to stay in Gaul. But Cotta, who had reflected that these things might occur on the march, and on that account had not been an adviser of the departure, was wanting to the common safety in no respect; both in addressing and encouraging the soldiers, he performed the duties of a general, and in the battle those of a soldier. He receives information of the death of Sabinus and Cotta from the prisoners. Caesar's details here make vividly clear to his readers the individual characteristics of his new enemy; he never fights a vague, unknown warring force. Sabinus differs; he fears waiting because he thinks that soon too many enemy troops for them to handle will arrive, particularly when the German reinforcements gather. Once more, Gaul is peaceful. The Senones make excuses to Caesar for their actions but fail to obey his order to send their senate as hostages. Just as his men have sighted the enemy, Quintus Atrius sends word that a storm has damaged many of the ships, and Caesar commands the troops to defer attack. Indutiomarus, in panic, sends a message to Caesar saying that he intends to keep order among the groups under him and prevent the common people from succumbing to indirection. He offers great rewards for those who should kill him: he sends up the cohorts as a relief to the horse. Back in Gaul a council is held at Samarobriva (Amiens). And thus the whole state was at his control; and that he, if Caesar would permit, would come to the camp to him, and would commit his own fortunes and those of the state to his good faith. Then, one night Labienus brings the cavalry he had summoned inside, but has the camp guarded so there will be no way for Indutiomarus to discover his reserve. LibriVox recording of De Bello Gallico Libri Septem, by Gaius Julius Caesar. This day was by far the most calamitous to our men; it had this result, however, that on that day the largest number of the enemy was wounded and slain, since they had crowded beneath the very rampart, and the hindmost did not afford the foremost a retreat. Indutiomarus is thereby deterred from attacking the camp of Labienus.—LVI.-LVIII. Accordingly, they refer the matter to a council, and a great controversy arises among them. The Senones try to murder the king whom Caesar has appointed, but luckily the king hears of their plans and manages to escape. UNLIMITED BOOKS, ALL IN ONE PLACE. But they are caught by surprise when a Roman cohort charges and kills many of their soldiers. On their arrival, he asks for the loyalty of Indutiomarus, then takes the precaution of winning the other chiefs of the Treveri over to Cingetorix. Next day, small parties begin attack on the Roman horsemen. SUBSCRIBE TO READ OR DOWNLOAD EBOOK FOR FREE. He, after perusing it, reads it out in an assembly of the soldiers, and fills all with the greatest joy. One legion which he had raised last on the other side of the Po, and five cohorts, he sent among the Eburones, the greatest portion of whom lie between the Meuse and the Rhine, [and] who were under the government of Ambiorix and Cativolcus. 5 These matters being settled, Caesar went to port Itius with the legions. Caesar sends two experienced cohorts to support his troops, but the enemy breaks through and escapes. 1. Caesar marches to the relief of Cicero; defeats the Eburones.—LIII. Because there are so many prisoners and soldiers, however, Caesar must make two trips. 23 When he had received the hostages, he leads back the army to the sea, and finds the ships repaired. 55 But the Triviri and Indutiomarus let no part of the entire winter pass without sending embassadors across the Rhine, importuning the states, promising money, and asserting that, as a large portion of our army had been cut off, a much smaller portion remained. He persuades his slave, by the hope of freedom, and by great rewards, to convey a letter to Caesar. 50 That day, slight skirmishes of cavalry having taken place near the river, both armies kept in their own positions: the Gauls, because they were awaiting larger forces which had not then arrived; Caesar, [to see] if perchance by pretense of fear he could allure the enemy toward his position, so that he might engage in battle, in front of his camp, on this side of the valley; if he could not accomplish this, that, having inquired about the passes, he might cross the valley and the river with the less hazard. "). This very day shall decide our disputes.� When he had uttered these words, he proceeds beyond the fortifications, and rushes on that part of the enemy which appeared the thickest. In the mean while scouts having been sent in all directions, he examines by what most convenient path he might cross the valley. The tribesmen have fortified a forest for war and hide in it, rushing out in small groups to battle. The Treveri possess more cavalry than all the other Gauls and also have a great number of ready infantry troops; unfortunately, they also have rival chieftains — Indutiomarus and Cingetorix. In the mean time, that part of the Roman army, of necessity, was left unprotected, and the weapons received on their open flank. There, Caesar learns firsthand of the crisis at Cicero's camp. Yet, though assailed by so many disadvantages, [and] having received many wounds, they withstood the enemy, and, a great portion of the day being spent, though they fought from day-break till the eighth hour, they did nothing which was unworthy of them. They use gold and bronze coined pieces, and iron tallies. Returns into Hither Gaul; marches against the Treviri.—III. Caesar travels twelve miles before he sees any of the natives, and his first skirmish with them is rather curious. There, as in Gaul, is timber of every description, except beech and fir. One of the Gallic troopers immediately leaves with a message to Cicero. Caesar permits a few of the chiefs to stay in Gaul, but takes the rest with him as hostages. He seems finally to do everything possible to make the enemy's ambush a success. I. Caesar orders a large fleet of peculiarly constructed ships to be built; proceeds against the Pirustae; they submit.—II. Caesar sends back Fabius with his legion to his winter-quarters; he himself determines to winter with three legions near Samarobriva in three different quarters, and, because such great commotions had arisen in Gaul, he resolved to remain during the whole winter with the army himself. 34 But judgment was not wanting to the barbarians; for their leaders ordered [the officers] to proclaim through the ranks �that no man should quit his place; that the booty was theirs, and for them was reserved whatever the Romans should leave; therefore let them consider that all things depended on their victory. Now available as eText! He sends another to C. Fabius, the lieutenant, ordering him to lead forth his legion into the territories of the Atrebates, to which he knew his march must be made. The Gauls, about 60,000 strong, turn to meet the Romans, and Cicero dispatches a lightning swift lad to Caesar, warning him that the enemy has turned in a great tide and is rushing toward him. Caesar, meanwhile, destroys as many fields and buildings as he can as he marches through the area. Read De Bello Gallico and Other Commentaries online by Julius Caesar at ReadCentral.com, the free online library full of thousands of classic books. The Gallic-type huts inside are straw-roofed and quickly catch fire. © 2020 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. At the port Caesar finds all of the expected ships, save the sixty which had been held back by bad weather. Dispute between Titurius and Cotta.—XXXII. Description of Britain and its inhabitants.—XVII. Rebekahgracew. Cicero declares firmly that Romans do not accept terms from an armed enemy. That evening, the Gauls begin to depart in no particular order, and, at a signal, Labienus dispatches his cavalry out the two gates with orders, that, when the enemy panics and runs, they should first make for Indutiomarus and kill him. To the state moreover the occasion of the war was this-that it could not withstand the sudden combination of the Gauls; that he could easily prove this from his own weakness, since he was not so little versed in affairs as to presume that with his forces he could conquer the Roman people; but that it was the common resolution of Gaul; that that day was appointed for the storming of all Caesar�s winter-quarters, in order that no legion should be able to come to the relief of another legion, that Gauls could not easily deny Gauls, especially when a measure seemed entered into for recovering their common freedom. The latter induces four princes of Cantium to attack the Romans, by whom they are defeated.—XXIII. Are you sure you want to remove #bookConfirmation# Book VI. Cicero is confronted by the same story Ambiorix presented Sabinus, but he refuses to talk to an enemy under arms. Another side lies toward Spain and the west, on which part is Ireland, less, as is reckoned, than Britain, by one half: but the passage [from it] into Britain is of equal distance with that from Gaul. Cotta, however, refuses. When they had come to the camp, our men, after making a sally, slaying many of their men, and also capturing a distinguished leader named Lugotorix, brought back their own men in safety. from which, if immediate danger was not to be dreaded, yet certainly famine, by a protracted siege, was.� He himself, though the matter was one of great difficulty and labor, yet thought it to be most expedient for all the ships to be brought up on shore and joined with the camp by one fortification. He then proclaims an armed convention, marking the beginning of war. When the Gallic tribes rebel and destroy part of Caesar's legion, he vows to get revenge on the leader, Ambiorix. He directs him, if he should be unable to enter, to throw his spear with the letter fastened to the thong, inside the fortifications of the camp. What issue would the advice of Cotta and of those who differed from him, have? One of the chiefs, Dumnorix of the Aedui, tries a variety of stories to try and persuade Caesar to leave him behind, but Caesar won't be swayed. The enemy hears the sounds of preparations and sets up an ambush two miles away. The easy way to get free eBooks every day. All the legions are within 100 miles of one another. This affair having been known, all the forces of the Eburones and the Nervii which had assembled, depart; and for a short time after this action, Caesar was less harassed in the government of Gaul. Other tribes surrender to Caesar and inform him that Cassivellaunus is hidden not far away with many men and cattle. Then, without warning, they attack Cicero's camp. They speedily performed the things demanded, and sent hostages to the number appointed, and the corn. Accordingly, the speech of Indutiomarus, which he had delivered in the council, having been made known [to him] by Cingetorix and his allies, he sends messengers to the neighboring states and summons horse from all quarters: he appoints to them a fixed day for assembling. When Indutiomarus, however, learns of the general's feat, he abandons his plan of attack and moves his forces. 42 Disappointed in this hope, the Nervii surround the winter-quarters with a rampart eleven feet high, and a ditch thirteen feet in depth. Our men making an attack on them vigorously, repulsed them; nor did they cease to pursue them until the horse, relying on relief, as they saw the legions behind them, drove the enemy precipitately before them, and slaying a great number of them, did not give them the opportunity either of rallying, or halting, or leaping from their chariots. There he discovers that forty ships, which had been built in the country of the Meldi, having been driven back by a storm, had been unable to maintain their course, and had returned to the same port from which they had set out; he finds the rest ready for sailing, and furnished with every thing. The Romans are in trouble immediately and Sabinus panics. A few escaping from the battle, made their way to Labienus at winter-quarters, after wandering at random through the woods, and inform him of these events Then, when an inconsiderable space intervened, Pulfio throws his javelin at the enemy, and pierces one of the multitude who was running up, and while the latter was wounded and slain, the enemy cover him with their shields, and all throw their weapons at the other and afford him no opportunity of retreating. Next morning Caesar sees the enemy for himself and, thankful that Cicero is no longer critically threatened, plans his new moves. And this, though it was small in itself, [there being] scarcely 7,000 men, and these too without baggage, still by the narrowness of the passages, he contracts as much as he can, with this object, that he may come into the greatest contempt with the enemy. Caesar strikes, ordering his men to charge out from all gates, cavalry first. When he had arrived there, he perceives that numerous forces of the enemy were marshaled on the other bank of the river; the bank also was defended by sharp stakes fixed in front, and stakes of the same kind fixed under the water were covered by the river. Then with great rewards he induces a certain man of the Gallic horse to convey a letter to Cicero. He tells them that finally they have a chance to rid themselves of the Romans. Cotta, on the other hand, has been suspicious and so remains calm. There is joy, though, as Cicero reads the message and he rouses his troops to new courage. L. Aurunculeius, and several tribunes of the soldiers and the centurions of the first rank, were of opinion �that nothing should be done hastily, and that they should not depart from the camp without Caesar�s orders;� they declared, �that any forces of the Germans, however great, might be encountered by fortified winter-quarters; that this fact was a proof [of it]; that they had sustained the first assault of the Germans most valiantly, inflicting many wounds upon them; that they were not distressed for corn; that in the mean time relief would come both from the nearest winter-quarters and from Caesar; lastly, they put the query, �what could be more undetermined, more undignified, than to adopt measures respecting the most important affairs on the authority of an enemy?� But this seems a parallel for another kind of contrast in the book — the contrast between Sabinus and Cicero. To him, in his turn, when surrounded, Pulfio brings relief; and both having slain a great number, retreat into the fortifications amid the highest applause. Cingetorix, seizing an opportunity, comes to Caesar and professes friendship for Rome. Sadly, Sabinus proves to be even more of a fool: after having Ambiorix demonstrate that he is a liar, he is still willing to entrust his life to the enemy by going with little protection to a conference in the middle of the enemy camp. In this way he keeps some of Gaul in peace. Indutiomarus and Cingetorix.—V. XVI. 21 The Trinobantes being protected and secured from any violence of the soldiers, the Cenimagni, the Segontiaci, the Ancalites, the Bibroci, and the Cassi, sending embassies, surrendered themselves to Caesar. Indutiomarus realizes that he has suffered a slight from the empire and his resentment smolders. 32 But the enemy, after they had made the discovery of their intended departure by the noise during the night and their not retiring to rest, having placed an ambuscade in two divisions in the woods, in a suitable and concealed place, two miles from the camp, waited for the arrival of the Romans: and when the greater part of the line of march had descended into a considerable valley, they suddenly presented themselves on either side of that valley, and began both to harass the rear and hinder the van from ascending, and to give battle in a place exceedingly disadvantageous to our men. But after that, some of the chief persons of the state, both influenced by their friendship for Cingetorix, and alarmed at the arrival of our army, came to Caesar and began to solicit him privately about their own interests, since they could not provide for the safety of the state; Indutiomarus, dreading lest he should be abandoned by all, sends embassadors to Caesar, to declare that he absented himself from his countrymen, and refrained from coming to him on this account, that he might the more easily keep the state in its allegiance, lest on the departure of all the nobility the commonalty should, in their indiscretion, revolt. Totally surprised, the enemy turns and tries to run but are killed. These being brought to him on the day which he had ordered, he appoints arbitrators between the states, who should estimate the damages and determine the reparation. Caesar will save them from slaughter. [4.1] The following winter (this was the year in which Cn. 36 Much troubled by these events, Q. Titurius, when he had perceived Ambiorix in the distance encouraging his men, sends to him his interpreter, Cn. It is a disheartening situation, but the Romans stand firm, though many continue to be wounded. But the soldiers of the seventh legion, having formed a testudo and thrown up a rampart against the fortification, took the place and drove them out of the woods, receiving only a few wounds. He at first strove to obtain by every entreaty that he should be left in Gaul; partly, because, being unaccustomed to sailing, he feared the sea; partly because he said he was prevented by divine admonitions. Already, he boasts, he has killed two legion commanders and has destroyed a large part of the Roman army. The ships having been brought up on shore and the camp strongly fortified, he left the same forces as he did before as a guard for the ships; he sets out in person for the same place that he had returned from. Therefore, having stayed about twenty-five days in that place, because the north wind, which usually blows a great part of every season, prevented the voyage, he exerted himself to keep Dumnorix in his allegiance [and] nevertheless learn all his measures: having at length met with favorable weather, he orders the foot soldiers and the horse to embark in the ships. When Caesar got proconsul of Gallia and Illyria in 58 B.C, the conquest of land in Gaul was an urgent need, both to improve his political standing and to calm his creditors in Rome. They move, then, feeling sure that Ambiorix has advised them as a friend, not as an enemy. 37 Sabinus orders those tribunes of the soldiers whom he had at the time around him, and the centurions of the first ranks, to follow him, and when he had approached near to Ambiorix, being ordered to throw down his arms, he obeys the order and commands his men to do the same. His personal enemies had killed him when in the third year of his reign, many even of his own state being openly promoters [of that act] This event is related to Caesar. For dispatch of lading, and for drawing them on shore, he makes them a little lower than those which we have been accustomed to use in our sea; and that so much the more, because he knew that, on account of the frequent changes of the tide, less swells occurred there; for the purpose of transporting burdens and a great number of horses, [he makes them] a little broader than those which we use in other seas.

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